Like iron and copper, since entering civilized society, nickel has been used in alloys. But compared with steel, brass and bronze, nickel alloys are the latecomers of the chemical industry.
The first commercially important nickel alloy was alloy 400, which was developed and marketed by the international nickel company (later called Inco alloy company) in 1905, and the trademark is MONEL (Monel). The next important milestone is the nickel molybdenum alloy B and nickel chromium molybdenum tungsten alloy C, which came out around 1930. Their inventor is HaynesStellite company (now called Haynes international company), of which two registered trademarks are HASTELLOY. The next important stage of the development of nickel based alloys came from Inco. In 1931, Ni - Cr - Fe alloy 600 and 1949 were developed to develop Ni - Fe - Cr Alloys, named INCONEL and INCOLOY, respectively.
Using the popularity and reputation of the original trademarks, Inco and Haynes introduced about 50 kinds of corrosion resistant and heat-resistant alloys in the MONEL, INCONEL, INCOLOY and HASTELLOY series.
Germany's Krupp VDM is a relatively well-known nickel based alloy developer and producer whose trademarks are Nicrofer, Nimofer and Nicorros.
The three leading companies in the world are continuing to develop new nickel alloys and modified alloys of interest in the chemical industry. The patent alloys mentioned in this article are listed in table A.
All early patent alloys have long lost patent protection, and many other manufacturers in the world are now able to produce these alloys, their own commodity names, or general alloy names that meet standard or technical specifications. As with pharmaceuticals, there is controversy over the equivalence between generic products and patented products.
Common standard specifications, such as ASTM and DIN, may be less restrictive than that of famous alloy manufacturers. The internal standards of the manufacturers control the chemical composition and metallurgical parameters of the alloy a little more, and the aim is to ensure higher material performance.read more: